Test Project Overview

Setup

Initialization

To generate files for a new test suite, change into the desired directory and run:

wtt init

This will generate a new test package with template files and project directories.

(Optional) Setup Virtual Environment

If using virtualenv, initialize the virtual environment before installing the test package:

virtualenv venv
source ./venv/bin/activate

Test Package Installation

After initializing the test project, run the following command from the project root directory:

pip install -e .

Installing with the -e flag will update the package automatically when changes are made to the source code.

Configuration

After initializing a project, the URL of the site to be tested will need to be configured. In <test_package>/config/site.py, set the SITE_URL and BASE_URL of the SiteConfig class. You can add any other URLs you’ll need as class variables as well.

Basic Command Line Usage

Usage:

<test_package> [-h] <command>

If no <command> is specified, the run command will be executed by default.

Note: If the test package was not installed with pip, run test packages commands using python -m <test_package> <command>.

For info on command line arguments, use the --help (or -h) argument:

<test_package> --help

Creating New Project Files

New tests and page objects can be generated using the new command:

<test_package> new [<type>] [<module_name>] [<ClassName>] [-d <description>] [-f]

Where:

  • <type>: The type of file to create (test or page)
  • <module_name>: Filename to use for the new python module
  • <ClassName>: Name to use for the initial class
  • <description>: (Optional) Description for the initial class
  • -f: (Optional) Force overwrite if a file with the same name already exists

If no arguments are provided, a prompt will walk you through generating the new file. Alternatively, you can skip the prompts by using the arguments shown in the following sections.

Creating New Tests

New test modules can be generated using the new test command:

<test_package> new test <module_name> <TestCaseClass>

Where <module_name> is the filename for the new test and <TestCaseClass> is the class name for the test case.

The --description (or -d) argument can be used to add a description for the initial test case class:

<test_package> new test <module_name> <TestCaseClass> -d "Test case description"

If a test module with the same <module_name> already exists, new test will not overwrite it by default. The --force (or -f) argument can be used to force overwrite existing files:

<test_package> new test <module_name> <TestCaseClass> --force

Creating New Page Objects

New page object modules can be generated using the new page command:

<test_package> new page <module_name> <PageObjectClass>

Where <module_name> is the filename for the new module and <PageObjectClass> is the class name for the page object.

The --description (or -d) argument can be used to add a description for the initial page object class:

<test_package> new page <module_name> <PageObjectClass> -d "Page object description"

By default, the new class will be a generic BasePage subclass. The --prototype (or -p) argument can be used to specify a page object prototype class to use as a parent class for the new page object:

<test_package> new page <module_name> <PageObjectClass> -p <prototype>

For a list of valid <prototype> options, run <test_package> new page --help.

Page object prototypes support YAML file parsing to simplify the syntax of representing elements. Whether YAML files or Python-only files are generated by default is configured in <test_package>/config/projectfiles.py by setting the ENABLE_PAGE_OBJECT_YAML variable of the ProjectFilesConfig class.

The default setting can be overridden by using command line arguments. If ENABLE_PAGE_OBJECT_YAML is True, the --no-yaml (or -Y) argument can be used to only generate .py files:

<test_package> new page <args> --no-yaml

If ENABLE_PAGE_OBJECT_YAML is False, the --yaml (or -y) argument can be used to generate .py and .yml files for supported prototypes:

<test_package> new page <args> --yaml

If a page module with the same <module_name> already exists, new page will not overwrite it by default. The --force (or -f) argument can be used to force overwrite existing files:

<test_package> new page <module_name> <PageObjectClass> --force

Running Tests

Basic Usage

To run all tests:

<test_package>

Running Specific Tests

To run all test cases in one or more modules, use the --module (or -m) argument:

<test_package> --module <test_module> [<test_module> ...]

To run specific test case classes or methods, use the --test (or -t) argument:

<test_package> --test <TestClass>[.<test_method>] [<TestClass>[.<test_method>] ...]

To skip certain test cases or methods, use the --skip (or -s) argument:

<test_package> --skip <TestClass>[.<test_method>] [<TestClass>[.<test_method>] ...]

The --test and --skip arguments both support wildcards (*) in class and method names.

These arguments can be used together. When combined, they are processed in the following order:

  1. --module reduces the set of tests to those in the specified modules
  2. --test reduces the set of tests to the specified classes and methods
  3. --skip removes the specified classes and methods from the set of tests

Using Specific Browsers

To do any of the above in specific browsers rather than running in all available browsers, use the --browser (or -b) argument:

<test_package> <args> --browser <browser> [<browser ...]

For a list of options you can specify with --browser, run <test_package> --help.

Using Headless Browsers

By default, tests run using the browser’s GUI. While it can be helpful to see what’s going on during test execution, loading and rendering the browser window can be resource-intensive and slows down performance during test execution.

To improve performance, tests can be run in headless browsers using the --headless (or -H) argument:

<test_package> <args> --headless

Note: When using the --headless argument, tests will only be run with the following web drivers that support running in a headless environment:

Using BrowserStack

Test projects can be configured to run tests on BrowserStack. Once BrowserStack support is enabled, tests can be run on BrowserStack using the --browserstack (or -B) argument:

<test_package> <args> --browserstack

See the documentation on BrowserStack Support for more details and setup instructions.

Configuring Output

By default, detailed output is displayed when running tests. To reduce or suppress output, use the --verbosity (or -v) argument:

<test_package> <args> --verbosity <level>

Where <level> is one of the following:

  • 0 - Final results only
  • 1 - Final results and progress indicator
  • 2 - Full output

Note: The default output level can be changed in <test_package>/config/test.py by setting the DEFAULT_VERBOSITY attribute of the TestSuiteConfig class.

List Available Tests

To print a list of available test classes and methods:

<test_package> list

To include docstrings for each test class and method in output:

<test_package> list --verbose

To only list test classes from specific modules:

<test_package> list --module <test_module> [<test_module> ...]

To only list specific test classes:

<test_package> list --test <TestClass> [<TestClass> ...]

To skip certain test classes in output:

<test_package> --skip <TestClass> [<TestClass> ...]

Project Structure

wtt init will create the following files and directories inside the project directory:

<project-directory>/
├── README.rst
├── setup.py
└── <test_package>/
    ├── __main__.py
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── config/
    │   ├── __init__.py
    │   ├── browser.py
    │   ├── browserstack.py
    │   ├── projectfiles.py
    │   ├── site.py
    │   ├── test.py
    │   └── webdriver.py
    ├── data.py
    ├── log/
    ├── pages/
    │   └── __init__.py
    ├── screenshot/
    └── tests/
        └── __init__.py

This test structure is designed to be used with the Page Object Model. Interaction with the page should be handled by page objects to minimize the need to alter tests whenever the HTML is changed.

Test Project Root Contents

  • setup.py: Python package setup file that allows the new test suite to be installed as a pip package.

Test Package Root Contents

  • __main__.py: Required to run tests from the command line.
  • __init__.py: Empty init file so Python recognizes the directory as a package.
  • data.py: Module for storing static data for tests that must use specific values (e.g. emails, usernames, etc).

Test Package Directories

config/

Configurations used by test scripts for site URLs, web driver options, and the python unittest framework.

  • browser.py: Configure which browsers to run tests in.
  • browserstack.py: Enable and configure testing with BrowserStack.
  • projectfiles.py: Configure defaults for generating project files with the new command.
  • site.py: Configure URLs used for testing.
  • test.py: Configure the unittest.TestRunner class.
  • webdriver.py: Configure WebDrivers and log output directory.

log/

Default output directory for WebDriver logs. This can be changed in config/webdriver.py.

pages/

Page object classes for pages and components. These classes should handle locating and interacting with elements on the page. See Creating New Page Objects for info on generating new page object modules.

screenshot/

Default output directory for screenshots taken during test execution. This can be changed in config/webdriver.py.

tests/

Test case modules. These use page objects to interact with elements and assert that the expected behavior occurs. See Creating New Tests for info on generating new test modules.